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Rieber, L. P. (1996). Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games. Educational Technology Research Development , 44 (2), 43-58

Note : The following is a 'pre-publication version' not reflecting minor revisions made in the final manuscript published in ETRD. This web-based version should not be circulated. I do not publicize this web site and only use it privately for use in my teaching.

Abstract : Little attention has been given to the psychological and sociological value of play despite its many advantages to guiding the design of interactive multimedia learning environments for children and adults. This paper provides a brief overview of the history, research, and theory related to play. Research from education, psychology, and anthropology suggests that play is a powerful mediator for learning throughout a person's life. The time has come to couple the ever increasing processing capabilities of computers with the advantages of play. The design of hybrid interactive learning environments is suggested based on the constructivist concept of a microworld and supported with elements of both games and simulations.

The field of instructional technology has witnessed tremendous growth in research and development of interactive multimedia learning environments in recent years, especially computer-based environments (e.g. hypertext/hypermedia; examples include Blanchard Rottenberg, 1990; Jonassen, 1991a, 1992; Locatis, Letourneau Banvard, 1989; Marsh Kumar, 1992; Yoder, 1994). At the same time, there has been increased openness in the field to consider the influence of a constructivist philosophy of learning on instructional design decisions (Duffy Jonassen, 1992). Researchers and developers are struggling to find innovative ways to exploit the interactive potential of the learning environments afforded by computers while remaining consistent with psychological and philosophical beliefs about how people learn and the practicalities of learning in schools and the work place (Hannafin, 1992; Hannafin Rieber, 1989a, 1989b). Given the serious work and thought evident in these areas, it is somewhat surprising that one of the most fundamental and important concepts of human interaction has received so little attention by our field - play. Why this is so is unclear. Perhaps it is because the word "play" can invoke so many misconceptions. For example, play is traditionally viewed as applying only to young children. Play seems to be something you have to give up when you grow up (Provost, 1990). There is also a sense of risk attached to suggesting an adult is at play. Work is respectable, play is not. Another misconception is that play is easy. Quite the contrary, even as adults we tend to engage in unusually challenging and difficult activities when we play, such as sports, music, hobbies, and games like chess (though adults may balk at using the word "play" to describe these activities) (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). Likewise, children's play is an engaging and deliberate activity in which they devote great effort and commitment. Another misconception is that the activity of play is irrelevant or inconsequential to either formal or informal learning. These misconceptions are all unfortunate because the extensive research on play with children and adults in anthropology, psychology, and education indicates that play is an important mediator for learning and socialization throughout life (Blanchard Cheska, 1985; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Provost, 1990; Yawkey Pellegrini, 1984). Given the range of open-ended explorable environments that can be constructed with computers, time has come to revisit the almost alarmingly simple, yet powerful construct of play and to legitimize play's role in the field of instructional technology. The purposes of this paper are to briefly review the theoretical and conceptual foundations of play and to explore its relevance in the design of interactive multimedia. The attributes of three well known learning environments (or strategies) consistent with play - microworlds, simulations, and games - will also be reviewed. A careful blending of their attributes offers promise in guiding the design of interactive learning environments where structure and motivation are optimized without subverting personal discovery, exploration, and ownership of knowledge. In other words, learning environments that encourage people to play.

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Getting a diagnosis for mesothelioma is crucial for patients to begin treating this terrible disease. It is a devastating diagnosis to receive, but the earlier the diagnosis is given, the better chance the patient has of getting treatment that can really help. If you believe you have been exposed to asbestos, especially over a long period of time, such as through your workplace, being examined and either getting the diagnosis of mesothelioma, or ruling it out, is an important step forward.

Diagnosis begins with a general doctor, but ultimately must be given by an oncologist, an expert in studying and treating cancer. Because of the rarity of this type of cancer, it is especially beneficial to see a specialty oncologist , someone who works mostly with mesothelioma patients. With imaging tests, biopsies, and possibly blood tests, you can get the diagnosis that will allow you to plan your next steps.

FREE Mesothelioma Packet includes:

The first step towards a mesothelioma diagnosis is recognizing the signs of the disease, the level of risk and asbestos exposure, or both. Some of ES Skateboard Shoes THE ACCELERATE GRAY Gray 7ZaOX7IEW
of mesothelioma include:

These signs are often overlooked as symptoms of mesothelioma because they are characteristic of other conditions. If you experience these symptoms, especially if you know you have been exposed to asbestos, it is crucial that you ask about mesothelioma.

Once you recognize that you may have some symptoms of this type of cancer, a visit to your general doctor is the next step. A primary care doctor can refer you if necessary to the next expert. This initial step is important because your doctor will do all the basic and routine examination steps that could actually rule out mesothelioma. If that isn’t possible, an oncologist will be the next professional you will see to make an official diagnosis.

Imaging Tests for Mesothelioma

One of the first imaging tests you may have to diagnose your condition is an X-ray. This can image dense tissues in the body and is a way to rule out pneumonia as a possible diagnosis. Your doctor or radiologist can see if you have fluid in the lungs that may be a result of this infection. Other types of imaging techniques that an oncologist may use to see if you have cancerous tumors characteristic of mesothelioma include CT and PET scans and MRIs.

A CT scan images the inside of the body using electromagnetic energy. A doctor can see most tumors using this type of scan. A similar type of image can be produced with an MRI, or a magnetic resonance image. This uses magnets and electromagnetic energy to create a picture of your internal structures. A PET scan is an imaging technique that detects areas of the body with high metabolic activity, often characteristic of cancerous cells. A combination of two or more imaging tests are often used to be sure of tumor locations.

Tissue Biopsies

For most patients the last diagnostic step is a biopsy. The imaging techniques show an oncologist where the cancerous tissues, cancer cells, and tumors are. Those areas can then be sampled so that the tissue or fluid from a tumor can be tested to confirm that it is in fact cancerous, or malignant as opposed to benign. There are several ways in which a biopsy can be done:

Blood Tests and the Potential for Early Detection

Currently, a combination of imaging and biopsies is the best and most accurate way to diagnose mesothelioma. Blood tests can be done as well, but these are not considered conclusive. For example, someone with mesothelioma is likely to have higher levels of certain proteins in the blood called osteopontin and soluble mesothelin-related peptides. However, there could be other explanations for elevated levels.

The latest research into diagnosing mesothelioma has focused on blood tests that could give a patient a better, earlier diagnosis. One such test, called the SOMAmer test, can detect over 1,000 different proteins in the blood. In trials with this test doctors were able to diagnose 90 percent of patients known to have mesothelioma and could rule the disease out in 95 percent of people known not to have it. In other words, this test has big potential to diagnose patients accurately and earlier than ever before.

Once you have a diagnosis of mesothelioma your doctor will want to stage it. This means looking at various factors to determine how advanced the cancer is. This helps your medical team plan for your treatment and helps you make better choices about treatment. Mesothelioma can be staged as one, two, three, or four, with one being the earliest stage and four the latest and most advanced.


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February 2, 2017

To My People Who Have Suffered and Wish to Suffer NO MORE,


“Being a slave in this modern day, is forfeiting your body to the state.” -FUREEous Youth, Discussing Mass Incarceration

Discussions about the bodies of black and brown folks usually center on police brutality and mass incarceration, it is very seldom that we discuss our physical well-being in the context of intersecting factors that all converge to put our bodies in harm’s way. But that intuition is never buried too deep, and our duty is to allow it the opening it needs to erupt to the surface. When we talk about the safety and security of our bodies, are we talking about the ability to provide it shelter and warmth? Does the dialogue make room to identify the risks posed to our air and adidas Copa 171 FG Cleat Mens Soccer Black/Copper/Black U1cyvfDk
, when corporations and governments Easemax Womens Trendy Frosted Fringe Beaded Round Toe Mid Hidden Heel High Top Boots Brown biMSzu0oP6
are of more value than our lives? Are we acknowledging the power given to elected officials over our bodies within our communities, when we don’t stay actively engaged in local politics? Or what about the egregious disservice to the minds of our youth when we don’t provide opportunities for development, empowerment and leadership? For isn’t our mind one of the greatest assets our bodies have bestowed on us, allowing us to imagine the incomprehensible and manifest the impossible?

FUREE’s membership and staff have been asking these questions of ourselves a lot more lately and inviting others to share in our vision for a more unified army of social justice warriors, willing to shake the foundations of everything we know and everything imposed on us to achieve a dream. While the dream of Dr. King rings bells of hope throughout all corners of our society, we should also recognize the other dreams that have been vital to shaping our struggle. Dreaming is what sparks the drive to action, and our dream is one that requires struggle and sacrifice for it to blossom as a reality. But we must first unlock the chains that prevent our dream from rising to consciousness and as we’ve seen in the past few months, we can no longer afford to sleepwalk our way to liberation. Wasn’t it our Antelope Womens 415 Leather Met Block Brush Black HdkhmAnwk2
who recognized we can’t afford to be spectators while our lives deteriorate.”?

Since January we’ve seen the power a few ill-advised and malicious pen strokes could wield over our bodies, in covert displays of violent oppression reigning supreme and unencumbered by the very institutions claiming to uphold checks and balances. We’ve witnessed and fought against the intentional transporting of our country back in time when Palladium Womens Pampa Lo Cuff Leather AnkleHigh Fashion Sneaker Black rDzSKQ
was ostracized on paper yet openly practiced in public, when women’s bodies were subject to the dictatorial rule of misogyny’s Blowfish Womens Bug Ankle Bootie Grey Twotone Flannel CcFkIqf8f
. We’re watching the rapid and excruciating death of self-determination when more and more people are unable to secure stable employment, and thriving is no longer the priority when most are thrilled by the prospect of just being able to survive a little longer! Blackness still remains a DStory Shoes Unicorn Lace Up Martin Boots For Women Unicorn2 eQ0rG
often carrying the weight of a death sentence along with it, and most of our country wrongfully equates the recognition of our value with the demise of theirs.

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